Tuesday, 22 March 2016

Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom

New additions are made at appropriate places. These individual pieces are not put in a chronological order. They are arranged in a logical sequence, to the extent, as per my 'instinctive wisdom'.
These terms are talked about frequently and appear to have some overlap. It is told that Information is derived from Data and subsequently Knowledge from Information and finally Wisdom from Knowledge. This appears a neat pyramid or a straight line block diagram.
However, Intuition also plays some role at each stage, from selection of type of data and the size of the sample to criteria for screening and selection at various stages. Since intuition is not yet fully understood it appears to be 'i' factor. It may also be influenced by knowledge of past experience, bordering with wisdom. That creates additional feed back loops in the block diagram and changes shapes of the pyramid.
 To illustrate this point let us give a few pages of identical data sheets or some complicated pictures or recording of various sounds to ten volunteers and ask them to independently note down important information and draw conclusions.   Each one will have his own intuition and ability of grasping, recognition, differentiation, prioritization etc. and previous knowledge and experiences. I think we will find that their findings will not be identical.

I am keeping this aspect open for further discussion and will update the blog as I receive further comments.

The discussion we already had in a separate chain is posted to this blog.
The chain of mails started from just a link to a video showing a 12 year old self made girl dancing.
S Dayal wrote: "This 12-Year-Old Girl Is A Superstar, And She Learned Everything She Knows From Watching YouTube Videos! http://m.coviral.com/this-12-year-old-girl-is-a-superstar-and-she-learned-everything-she-knows-from-watching-youtube-videos/"

There were some comments on pros and cons of watching internet. We will see them later. The discussion then turned to the topic of this post

S Dayal :
From the Knowledge management point of view first comes Data.
From a set of data we derive information.
From a set of information we derive knowledge.
... by knowledge we derive Wisedom.
The example of data can be temperature of a place at a noon.
When we collect temperature over years, we group them and call them as Seasons.
Seasons average temperature data, tells us that over years, it is rising.  That is Knowledge.
Now with this knowledge we can predict the average temperature of next year.  If we are more knowledgeable, we can correctly tell the temperature for coming decade.
That is how, Information is derived from Data and subsequently Knowledge, finally wisdom.
Above logic falls in the domain of KM (i.e. Knowledge Management).  There can be a physical or even a metaphysical approach to above may be leading to ... प्रलय !


Anand Ghare :

I was not able to watch the video on my poor internet connection, but I understand from text that the little girl has acquired amazing proficiency in dancing just from U tube. That means she has acquired a great level of skill. Where does skill fit in the ascending scale of Data, Information, knowledge and Wisdom?
Dilip Vishwaroop clarified :

I reproduce the Dictionary meaning describing " Knowledge " below :
Knowledge :
: information, understanding, or skill that you get from experience or education
: awareness of something : the state of being aware of something
Above definition clearly places Skill as a Sub-Set of Knowledge.
Knowledge in fact has a strong bond with Experience. A person becomes Knowledgeable only after gaining Experience or in other words - Knowledge is gained / acquired only after Internalising Information or more simply after Information is put to Practical Application. Through experience one comes into face to face with the intricacies of putting information to practical use.
By repeatedly executing Tasks (without Failure / least failures) related to certain Data or Information, one acquires Skill. Greater Skill is an indication of one's ability to execute Tasks efficiently, elegantly, and in an Error-Free manner.

Wisdom is One's ability to decide which Knowledge / Information is to be utilised where (profitably, suiting the Target / Goal), under the current Circumstances.
Thus the " Decision Making " ability necessarily demands possession of Sufficient Knowledge (envisioning full Pros and Cons) about the Situation where a Decision is required to be taken.
Ashok Malhotra :
   The dictionary meaning of "intuition" or other similar words is as follows:
"1. knowledge or belief obtained neither by reason nor by perception
2. instinctive knowledge or belief
3. a hunch or unjustified belief
4. (Philosophy) philosophy immediate knowledge of a proposition or object such as Kant's account of our knowledge of sensible objects
5. the supposed faculty or process by which we obtain any of these.
   So it has a distinct disconnect from the rest of the four subject terms, howsoever I have experienced its more frequent usage in our Indian context specially the ladies who seem to have a stronger since of "Intuitions", with a fair amount of success rates, why and how, no one has any explanation. Perhaps therein also lies the key to its mysteries, if someone can take up a scientific study.
   There are, of course, many unexplained mysteries of Nature and I have a large book on them published by the Readers Digest.
K.Natarajan :
The blogs on the perceptible gap between KNOWLEDGE ( which , to a large extent, can be acquired and cultivated by working on the INFORMATION available) and WISDOM, which was spoken of as the assimilation of knowledge, implying the same possibility of cultivation,(all well explained by Vishwaroop ji) was very stimulating.,
Reminding me of the common usage as interchangeables of Protection System and Shutdown system!
This rejoinder may be a bit off the mark, and seek your indulgence!

Knowledge is cooking of data, consisting of information accumulated by senses- observing, feeling,  hearing etc -with tools made by intelligence, like facts , ideas ,study, research, investigation, experimenting, skills and surmises included, all in the preview of mind and intellect., the 'tools' being 'manmade'

Wisdom is the cooking of Knowledge,  the  POTENTIAL to apply knowledge to the greater scheme of life, sometimes bypassing that also! It’s also deeper;  involvng the why and how of meaning and reason,  what our ancient sages called ' the search for Brahman' , the 'tools' conceived by Intelligence  being of no avail!

With a difference that In the present day world, there can be lesser equivalents of Brahman in the financial, engineering , medical  etc domains!

I have often thought about the many 'knowledge' books and institutions and used to wonder why a lot more had not bridged the gap to achieve the Wisdom, figuratively to mean the highest level of achievement.
We have not seen many Buddha s , in the religious field, or many Bhabha s or Einstein s in the materialistic world, which is odd if we accept that wisdom, the hallmark of these great people is achievable by  man made effort.

The inevitable conclusion is that in the cycle of senses, mind, observation, information, intelligence  and processing leading to knowledge ,  all are in the reach of man to varying degrees, depending on dedication and effort, but, BUT the final stage of Wisdom is beyond this. That requires an extra spark!

All the Gurukuls of the past or present day institutions and books could produce scholars, superb doctors or engineers  but would not provide the extra  filip  to make a Buddha, a Warren Buffett or an Einstein!
They can build knowledge but cannot give wisdom.

We all know about the karma doctrine ( if a member of this group  does not know, he must have been in deep sleep for the past one year!), a portion in our control by effort and a portion which we have just got, called as Sanchita and  Prarabtha karma, vaguely explaining the inequalities in birth  between Dharavi and Altamount Road!

The wisdom falls in the later prarabtha  karma. If we can view life as a combination of deterministic and stochastic processes, the wisdom (and the crude equivalent of material wealth) is more of a stochastic nature than deterministic!
Not everybody can become a Sankaracharya or a Bill Gates by any amount of training and committed pursuit.

With years of study and research, we may interpret the Vedas, that is knowledge.
The ancient sage must have given that casually , effortlessly, that is wisdom.
Crudely, the dancing girl of the first blog acquired the skill by effort, by ' watching YouTube millions of times'. That is Effort, knowledge.
The girl who performed on YouTube, effortlessly, could be wisdom!
Even by skilful emulation we cannot become originals!

The best amongst we mortals, with hard effort and dedication, reach the summit height possible of Knowledge and we reward them for that. Exceptional persons in the Wisdom category are Nature's gift to us and we respect them for that.

GRSrinivasan has rightly stressed on Application, what he calls as Deployment of Knowledge, how an individual at a high level, either spiritually or materialistically,  applies what he has acquired by his own effort, Knowledge,  or  God given by previous karma, or whatever, Wisdom
The difference in Application is as much as we see in a Narayana Murthy,  a Azim Premji, a Tata on one side and Vijay Mallya!  on the other side
Or a Sankaracharya, a RamanaMaharishi on one side and the many god men we see today!  on the other.

I am not saying anything new! Just a different way of cooking knowledge, WITHOUT WISDOM!
Ashok Malhotra :
Knowledge vs wisdom:
I am reminded of an example. Einstein was once asked: A cyclist starts from A @ of 10km/hr for point B at a distance of 15km. Simultaneously a bird starts from B @ of 20km/hr, touches the cyclist wherever he is n comes back to B, back to the cyclist n so forth till both are at B. Question is: how much distance the bird covered.
   After a while, the scientist replied the question correctly as 30km. The person enquired, so you were wise enough to solve it by logic, n not by summing of a series equation. The scientist replied: yes that's how I solved it, by summing the series equation. The wise Sol. was : as the cyclist travelled for 1.5hrs, the bird covered 1.5x20=30km.
K.Natarajan :
What had been covered earlier was the gap between Information and Knowledge.
This could be mathematical.
What I ventured to cover, a bit hesitantly, is the gap between Knowledge and Wisdom.
This could be an area of surmise and hence the running back and forth!
Anand Ghare:
The excellent analysis showing the gap between knowledge and wisdom by Natarajanji has made a very valuable addition to the debate. "Nothing new" he might have said, but not so clearly known to most of us, perhaps relearning for some.  I understood the 'i' factor associated with it, as hinted in my earlier response, more clearly

I may add my bit. In my view 'wisdom' does not mean only restricted to that of the great seers or successful persons listed by Shri KN. Even a small ant is wise, through application of her acquired knowledge or through God given instinct, to choose which food particle to be picked up and carried to her anthill. So are all humans. Some are much more wiser than others in some respect. Hence I think the example given by Malhotraji, is an example of wisdom. Some may call it parallel thinking!

Mohan Rao :
On the subject of knowledge and learning and the Internet I see a pattern of evolution which merits some attention. In forest sciences, there is conceptual idea called climax forest. The idea behind it is that as forests get destroyed over time, usually due to fire (from the hoofed animals striking on stone surfaces and creating fire), they rejuvenate themselves and in each stage, they get better and better, self-perpetuating, lushier, more diverse, and after a number of stages we have what ecologists call climax forests. So do we in almost every human endeavour given the time, to build and rebuild, and examples are many. Human communication was recorded for future in Vedic times by memorizing and chanting of mantras until, scripts came into existence and people scribed their communication on to papyrus etc for storing the info for future. That is how the Vedas and epic literature got preserved for a number of generations. Lithographic printing (thanks to Gutenberg) came very much later and once they came in, printing of communication made giant strides and pretty much everything from tomes to flyers got printed and still are. Papyrus became a museum item.

With the ability to digitize information, the age of printing seems to be gasping to survive because of the capability to communicate online. I can see, as time passes by, creating and storing info and retrieving them as easily as you store them is becoming the norm given the ability to store incredible amounts of information in various media, including cloud storage systems. Learning has never been easier. Entire libraries and university curriculums and coursework are going online.

At every stage of repro, reality to cognition, cognition to articulation, articulation to reception, reception to evaluation and  reciprocation, communication loses quality and depth. Words in my view have become a poor currency for communication. In many cases, such as  Beethovan’s sixth symphony, its magnificent flash of consciousness, human love and the music of the soul simply cannot be reproduced by words. “I cannot find the words to say it” is a common every day complaint among the humans.

In his hypothesis of Homo Intelligens, Yonegi Masuda compares the new threesome, computers, media and the robots to the frontal lobe, the vocal chord and the fingers, which brought the Homo Sapiens to the stage of Homo Intelligens after several millennia of evolutionary development. Now the stage has come for another giant leap in terms of communication from the digital and Internet age aided by technological extensions still on the drawing boards, global communication layers of networks, cortical extensions (brain-machine interfaces, etc) which should provide a range of new media for knowledge and learning, a climax of instant decision making capability to the humans where ever they spread their wings (Homo touristus). The Internet may be the stepping stone for this metamorphosis. Not with words, but like osmosis, with an innate ability to immerse oneself in a sea of information and culling what you want, in the silence of your mind and soul.

Ashok Malhotra :
  A very well explained expose on data, information, knowledge n wisdom and the futuristic trends in this domain foreseen by Mohanraoji.
  To my mind, whilst there is no doubt on explosion of data n knowledge and its availability to everyone via the climax forests, cortical extensions or Homo Intelligens, the key issue of "Knowledge Management leading to Wisdom" is going to be the most precious phenomenon and will remain in some gifted few human mind's domain (not all  brains, mind it) till the time the deep secrets of our brain n its thinking process are revealed n replicated as a first step being tried by the Russian tycoon.
   To illustrate my point about the difference between knowledge, intelligence and wisdom, let me link below an article in today's ToI about the most important current issue of "Choices of American Presidency" which may impact the Americans n the world equally in future, and the choice is not simple but has to be made today through our wisdom, not knowledge alone. As Socrates said "Wisdom comes by sharing n discussing the knowledge". Thanks.
The Simpsons saw 'Prez Trump' 16 years ago http://toi.in/jDs_5Y @timesofindia

G.R.Srinivasan :
 I want to add a final step after attaining knowledge/wisdom to what is mentioned by Dayal. Deployment of knowledge acquired is the one that proves the pudding. Many may remember our addition to CRs  a column "achieved during the year compared to targets" in place of (or in addition to) bright and intelligent which was in GOI CRs. This is also the practice in private industries where some companies use an American system called balance score card. It is observed that deployment is not at all proportional to knowledge and many times a lesser knowledgeable person is more productive.

Mohan Rao :
I agree with your statement that how the brain functions is going to be the Achilles heel in finally coming to grips on finding wisdom in a neo-computer. I would like add a couple of points though:

Wisdom has been somewhat interpreted as a mystique, something that is given to you by the powers above, and is not only erudition but also esoteric, a God-given gift, etc etc (like the Oracle of Delphi). I have a feeling that this idea of wisdom is oversold by the story tellers. Perhaps it helps pandits, astrologers, psychics, crystal ball gazers and people of that genre in establishing their practice of making difficult decisions for the general public at storefronts. They all have self-professed ideas of their prescience, wisdom, or whatever they profess (tarot cards, astrology charts etc) but they fall short of wisdom, and some people tend to flock to them if they see that their decisions indeed worked well.

In reality, wisdom is nothing but good judgment, ability to make the soundest decisions often on one’s feet or in a heartbeat.  Decision-making at scientific/technical levels is an old art and most of us have confronted this in our professions. There are tons of people who make this their living, specializing in various mathematical techniques (Monte Carlo techniques, needs and criteria analysis, various what-if analysis, risk analysis etc) and cross disciplines to offer their services (I know a young friend of mine who worked with Stephen Hawking on String Theory and was later hired by a London bank to carry out financial risk assessments).

With respect to wisdom of computers, Artificial Intelligence(AI) is a fast advancing field and does the work of converting information into computer wisdom. There are now chatbots (talking robots) to talk to you and guide you at hospital ER triages, at shopping malls, libraries etc to guide you through. There are robots marketed to make your coffee in the morning, to work at hospitals at nano-scales to work their way through veins and arteries cleaning up plaques etc in heart patients and in various body parts doing chores asked to by the Meds. These are only examples. As in HMT Bangalore where machines build machines, there are robot factories where robots build robots. We are not far from computers that replicate the human brain and robots that can carry out whatever tasks are required to be done from interstellar spacecraft to nano-robots that can do the minutest of jobs. Russians are talking of major breakthroughs in building humanoids with electronic brains by 2045.

Internet has now become ubiquitous in terms of knowledge management (storing, searching, retrieving etc). In the next few decades we may see a world poised to deploy countless computer systems that convert knowledge to so-called wisdom (i.e. decision-makers) and tens of thousands of robotic humanoids that do the bidding of the computers in assisting humans along our journey on this planet. Newer issues (real or imaginary) will emerge whether with the power of the human brain, these systems will remain docile to the human or be self-centred, emotional, self-replicating and try to take over the world and be able to wage a war with the humans leading to an Armageddon (in lighter vein), as some of the sci-fi films of today seem to be ready for the ride on the silver screen.


Anand Ghare :
I was remembering some very simple meanings of the terms Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom.
Data (generally raw) is just a bunch of some numbers, letters, words etc.
Information is when the relevant Data is picked up and arranged or organized (Phone nos. in my personal Directory)
Knowledge is gained when that information is utilized for some purpose.
Wisdom is to know which information and knowledge to be used at which time and how, seeing pros and cons etc..

Thanks for giving me more insight on these terms.

Raghavan Varadhan :
Where does "Intuition" fit in?

S Dayal :
In (a simplified) Knowledge Management domain there are                                                                                             Intuition,    Skill,   ...
1.  Data                                        v             v
2.  Information derived from data               v             v
3.  Knowledge derived from info                 v             v
4.  Wisdom derived from knowledge               v             v

Intuition, Skill ... and many more similar attributes, fall under Cross-Functional areas.    Intuition is required in (1) data collection, (2) Deriving information and so on till  ... (4) Knowledge.  Same is true for Skill ... or any other attribute as well

For example, now GM and Tesla are doing research in anti-skid brakes, in their cars.  They are collecting 32 parameters (DATA), in real-time, of single component of the car BRAKES !
I was surprised by just by the number of parameters itself, leave alone the mechanical components of the brake.   (1) At what speed the brakes are applied by a driver (2) At what distance, the driver feels safe / unsafe to slam on the brakes ... well the rest of the information falls under the envelop of confidentiality.  In the commercially launched product, they do agree, that they will reduce the number of collection of the real-time data, for their real time anti skid braking system.

Gregor Mendel worked with seven characteristics of pea plants: plant height, pod shape and color, seed shape and color, and flower position and color. With seed color, he showed that when a yellow pea and a green pea were bred together their offspring plant was always yellow.  The INTUITION (genius) of Gregor Mendel was in select the number SEVEN, at the time, when there was no microscope, or electron microscope to identify the Genes.

It was only the discovery of electron microscope, it was found that Pea plants have only Seven Genes !

Every research begins with a hypothesis and then subsequently collection of (1) Data ... leading to a new (Wisdom) theory, invention or even a simple innovation.

Anand Ghare:

Which and how much Data should be collected seems to be depending on Intuition!
OMG!!!  We have i or j factor here also!


Other comments on Internet learning:
S Dayal :
This 12-Year-Old Girl Is A Superstar, And She Learned Everything She Knows From Watching YouTube Videos!

By Nenad on March 16, 2016

Adilyn Malcolm has proven that the internet is the ultimate learning tool for those with a passion. She is a 12 year old girl who has learned how to dance to dubstep with just her iPad and YouTube videos. Thanks to the ability to pause and rewind, she has said that that learning has never been easier.

Sometimes she has had to watch videos “millions of times” in her own words, but the video is which she showcases her skills speaks for itself. All the dedication is definitely worth it as her moves are flawless and soon enough she will be the one inspiring others.

We live in a day and age where knowledge is readily accessible for those who want to learn. Adilyn has an incredible talent for dance and her dedication and practice have taken that to the next level.

Other than YouTube, she has had no professional instruction. It’s amazing to see what the technology of today can help people achieve. Take this for an act of inspiration.

More at



Ajay Chakrabarti :


S Dayal :
Steve Jobs, has said that, "Getting information form the internet is like, drinking water from the fire hose.
Internet does give, plenty of information, but it also gives ZERO experience.
Internet is just a medium, like newspaper, radio or a TV.  The authenticity of the contents available on internet may need validation or cross check from an independent source.

Any amount of internet or Artificial Intelligence, can not beat the natural stupidity of the human beings.

Internet as a learning tool for all the students for all the subjects? ... is still an open ended question, indeed.


Ashok Malhotra :
There is a lot of gap between the "information" and "knowledge". It's the same as food n digestion of food products.


Friday, 18 March 2016

Complex numbers and algebra of human life

Those who have studied Mathematics at college level must have studied Complex numbers and most of the engineers would have used them to solve many problems. A complex number is expressed in the form a + ib where both 'a' and 'b' are real numbers and 'i' is the imaginary unit, equal to square root of −1. In this expression 'a' is the real part and 'ib' is the imaginary part of the complex number. The real and imaginary parts are as different as apples and onions. They cannot be mixed up by direct addition or subtraction and there are special rules for their multiplication and division. What these complex numbers have to do with human life?

It is generally believed that every living person has a body and a soul. The soul or आत्मा leaves the body at the end of its life and goes to heaven, hell, स्वर्ग, नरक, जन्नत, जहन्नुम etc. or gets into another new body taking birth or just rests in peace or may become a spirit and keep haunting. These are some divergent common beliefs. However, what is the role of the soul or आत्मा  when the person is alive?

Scientists mainly influenced by Physics have not found any practical method of detecting the soul or आत्मा or measuring its properties. So they do not have any scientific evidence of its presence. As per the present medical knowledge, all organs of the body function or do their कर्म  as instructed by their brain, another part of their body. The brain has a rational part intelect (बुद्धी) and an irrational part mind (मन). However, we are also told during our upbringing that consience, जमीर, विवेक , nature (स्वभाव) of the person nurtured by conditioning during upbringing (संस्कार) play a dominating role in deciding his actions. These are mostly associated with his soul or आत्मा. Rather that is the main driving force in many situations.

This combination is described in a complex number theory by a brilliant mechanical engineer, Shri Raghuveer Rustagiji, who is also a philosopher and योगी .  He had once suggested that nothing in nature is simply scaler but a vector quantity, A+iB. Which leads us to a combination of a real no and a virtual or illusionary quantity. To see it in part would be misleading the self.

This was further discussed in quite interesting as well as intriguing manner as given below.

Mohan Rao :
 I consider that the totality we all live in has plenty of our sensual perception on the one hand, and whatever is beyond perception which we may call the ‘Absolute’ or ‘what makes up the total’ on the other. To use math symbolism we may note the totality as I + iF where I stands for the Infinite (i.e. Infinite or what lies beyond our perception; I is also the subjective pronoun one uses for identifying one’s own Self is an interesting co-incidence) and F the finite part of the ‘totality’ which of course is our perceptual illusive reality, hence iF.

There are two ways of seeing ‘totality’ of our existence. As a worldview, one can live inside the finite world, the one we have put together by our sensual and analytical knowledge and ignore the ‘Infinite’ or the ‘Absolute’ which would then be an atheistic worldview and one can be perfectly happy in it, although people like Buddha have said that such a world is the cause of our sorrow. On the other hand, one can have a worldview centric to the Infinite and try to achieve self-realization by a process of meditation and thereby claim that they have the truer world devoid of the virtual or the illusive sensual world in it. If one doesn’t compartmentalize one’s worldview into either of these ways, by default, we live in an I + iF world and be either perfectly happy with it or lament about it pointing to the sources of misery in the finite world.
Ashok Malhotra:
  Frankly, I have not devoted much time on this "discovery of truth" perhaps because, like all others, winning the daily bread took all the energies.
  There is no doubt that at any given time n space, there are multiple realities and platforms. Long back I had read that it is impossible for the human mind to comprehend God, Universe, Life, Nature, Reality, call what you may, because the unit of our mind is much bigger than theirs. It's like measuring a cm with an inch scale. That's why Krishna had to "reveal" to Arjuna its virat roop, or the rishis talk of attaining higher levels of consciousness for salvation n truth, kundalini जागृति etc.
   So Sir I don't even try to understand these truths n realities from our finite angles, as we know them, though mathematically I would have preferred the equation to be F+iI than I+iF since the finite or reality part can not be in the virtual zone, as we, being finite, may all vanish in the virtual zone without a trace.
      By the way, I am curios to trace the path Einstein went on for his  "Theory of Relativity", if you have any references.
Anand Ghare :
We may call our being as I+iF or F+iI, but 'I' is said to be 'infinite nothingness,' whatever it means. So it cannot have any finite value. F has certainly some sensible value and we keep trying optimising it.
Ashok Malhotra :
Another thought on F+iI 's existence, perhaps a postulate:
       In nature, every thing, living, nonliving, micro or macro cosmos exists in duality as mutually dependent/supportive. Nothing exists in isolation, even the speed of light, time, matter, many other constants, space, gravity  etc long thought as unique values exist & vary relative to something else. So we may be on a right path of thinking about F+iI..

Mohan Rao :
Re your question regarding Einstein: What Einstein has taught us is that whatever we hold today as incontrovertible proof of something may be foolishly outdated as time moves on, in the same manner that Newtonian mechanics became to be known as a very limited worldview of the clockwork of nature when Einstein started developing his theories on relativity. In the I + iF formulation of totality as we discussed earlier, alas, we have already seeing holes such as in Swiss cheese.

Our first exposure to Einstein’s work : Among his views: Motion through space is a meaningless concept; only motion relative to material bodies has significance; physical laws are independent of the frames of reference, etc. etc. The wellknown findings he came up with relating to relativistic effects moved us from Newtonian worldview to the larger universe as they saw it at the time (i.e. space-time continuum, gravitational effects, relativity etc.). Peeling this layer of the totality by Einstein changed our view to a great extent. I remember, at the turn of the millennium, he was branded as the Person of the Century by a noted newsmagazine (interestingly followed by Mahatma Gandhi in the second position).

At a personal level, it seems to me that Einstein was deterministic and his statement that God plays no dice is wellknown although this view came back to haunt him as the Quantum Mechanics grew later on and randomness in nature at the quantum mechanical level and uncertainties came into the evolving view of the universe.

 With this background, it is an interesting topic to figure out what these developments do to our I + iF formulation of totality. If we ignore for the moment the universe prior to the big bang and the fabric of space outside of the space-time cocoon we live in since the big bang, pretty much the entire universe seems to be trending to be deterministic and hence finite. The only unknown pertains to the question what else is there in the universe and what might have happened before the big bang. This is the grey zone left where scientists continue to speculate about (already there are tons of work and postulations in scientific literature such as multiple universes, dark energy, further knowledge about the space etc etc.).

On the whole, it is like peeling an onion as I mentioned elsewhere. In the first stage we learnt about the Newtonian mechanics, which served our purpose for a while. When we peeled further, outward from our “terrestrial” reference we found the relativistic effects, which explained the larger universe since the big bang. There may be more peels to pare. Either we may reach a stage in the future where ‘whatever is’ is all pared and we find as the Upanishads suggest, nothing particular to write home about, or we may be into an endless bonanza from an exercise of peeling layer by layer, finding more layers to worry about, more patterns of existence and newer rules of the game to explore etc. The I + iF formulation may finally be unsolvable at which point the I(nfinite) may be meaningless to pursue any further. As Nietzsche discussed denial of God in his works we may be able to say: The Infinite is dead because what is left of it to explore may be so remote, so intractable and most of all may be of little interest.

What the rishis wondered in the opening of the Rig-Veda however would still ring true:
“There was not then what is, nor what is not. Who knows the truth? Who can tell whence arose this universe? Who knows when came this creation? Only that Infinite who sees the highest heaven. He only knows whence comes this creation and whether it was made or uncreated. He only knows, perhaps he knows not” (adapted from translation by Juan Mascaro).

Karen Strong, Author of “A History of God” concludes not surprisingly that a state of “un-knowing” is built into the human condition.

S Dayal :
Einstein statement that God plays no dice ... was re stated by Stephan Hawking.
God, not only plays dice with the World, sometimes he throws the dice, from where they are not retrievable.
Obviously, Hawking is referring to Black Holes.

Ashok Malhotra :
    There are times to integrate n times to differentiate to enhance our understanding. But here we are in the  "nowhere" zone. From holes in cheese-space_time continuum-quantum mechanics-dice throwing-what else. Yes the state of unknowing is built into our nature, as I said the same in different words "measuring cms with an inch scale. The symbol of zero also contains some space.
   So where are we? Lost in all this maze or Godly web. Thanks any way for some  flash lights.

Mohan Rao :
Totality is all there is in the cosmos and beyond.  Totality can be considered either as Infinite, or as Finite. In the Infinite, we consider all that is God-centred, timeless, beginning-less and endless and other abstract notions (scientific as well as theosophical) that we may notice to exist in the cosmos. In the Finite, we consider all that exists in the physical cosmos, including our own place it, the solar system, the planet and physical existence that fill our everyday life. For some, Infinite may be an illusive or imaginary notion, not grounded in their perception of reality while perceived reality is all there is. For some others, Infinite may be the only reality (rather than faith) and the Finite an illusory part created by our sensory perception, limited and impermanent. For some others, totality may be a combo of both Finite and Infinite to various other degrees.

As human beings we are individuals in this totality and each may have differing views. There are some who are hard-wired to lead a God-centric life  for whom God is all there is and there are some to hold an atheistic view and focus only on the anthropic part of the equation. Then there may be some who see themselves as a hybrid of the two and holding either the Infinite as reality and Finite as illusory or vice versa.

To find meaning in life, we need to search our souls to see what line of thinking we believe in or if we find alternate expressions for our being and our place in the cosmos. We need to reflect to ourselves our interpretation of the Totality and find out where we lie in the spectrum of  these  expressions. Like in vector analysis, one can contemplate and quantify the relativity of the Infinite and the Finite in various ways and orient one’s spiritual compass for navigating our lives in different waters. Knowing where one’s spiritual compass is directed to is, from my life’s experiences, helpful for dealing with one’s trials and tribulations. On the other hand, some may feel that they are already aware of their spiritual position and re-thinking all these matters again is a waste of time.

Ashok Malhotra :
Current Sub Subject: Conception and Stretch of "Totality" in the Finite n Infinite Zones, its Connect with Individual Life, or in a nutshell, me n my universe:
           Now, if Philae-Rosetta can land on the comet 67P, New Horizons can fly past the Pluto after a 11 yrs journey and a Russian tycoon can plan to upload his brain to a computer, hoping to "live a virtual life for ever", we might as well be permitted to pHyLoSoPhIsE a bit into these unknown zones, where our peers n  scriptures have also played lead roles.
    As known till now, these zones can be experienced in 3 known ways, though Christianity also recognises service to the invalid as well; 1. Scientific Principles 2. Faith Trust n belief. 3. Bhakti Tap n Revelation.
    As a trained mind in Sciences, only the  mathematics has concepts of infinity, space, time, n penetrated the micro cosmos to a fair degree, rest are only postulates, even the quantum mechanics, theory of every thing etc are not exact sciences. Lets hope the Russian succeeds in his effort on mental replication and we may better understand "consciousness n virtual life".
   The other two means are propped by the Religions of the world in various degrees n forms, quite disconnected from the  "Scientific Principles".
Raghavan Varadhan :
When iF becomes a Blackhole, Totality is nothing but Infinite Nothingness as Anandji would like to call it. Upanishad calls it "Purnam". Raghavan.

Mohan Rao :
Right now, I see at least five ways of conceptualizing totality as under:
Simply we can express totality [T] (i.e. whatever ‘is’) in five ways to start with:

A.  [T] = [I]
B.   [T] = [I] + i[F]
C.   [T] = [F]
D.  [T] = [F] + i[I]
E.   [T ]= [I] + [F]


A: God is all there is. I stands for Infinite, implying he encompasses whatever is, is infinite, limitless, transcendent, supreme, absolute and is non-objective consciousness that shines on us. Totality is all God-centred and that is all there is, [T] = [I].

B: This is a God-centric anthropic view of who we are and how we co-exist with the supreme. Here we recognize that there is an additional component we consider to be a manifestation of [I], the Finite, consisting of all of our sensory knowledge. The finite is sense-driven, subjective, limited  and cannot be considered as either absolute or supreme.  It is an illusory or imaginary quantity, hence [T] = [I] + i[F].

C: This is an atheistic view that does not recognize the God-related components in totality and considers only what are anthropic views that consist of physicalities all of which are considered real and not illusory, [T] = [F].

D. This is a gnostic view that nonetheless recognizes that there things besides [F] that are not human-driven and are spiritual matters as those discussed in the Infinite but intuitive and pervasive, unknown and unknowable and beyond our intervention or capitulation. The latter are illusory or imaginary, hence [T] = [F] + i[I].

E. Lastly, E is the agnostic view, both God-centric [I] and anthropo-centric [F] views are considered real and considered a part of our totality [I] + [F].

If a computer like HAL comes into life in Russia, it may beat us all and find out the meaning of totality and we may have a computer-generated sense of it. One of the postulated ideas in current cosmology consists of countless universes that are more multi-dimensional than the one we have fantasized about. There may be a neo-Einsteinian view of the Totality, the Infinite, virtual lives, 11-dimensional math, travel between universes and simultaneous upswings and downswings in various corners of the new cosmos, etc etc  one day. Knock on wood they say.

I have made myself a toy for this topic to play with. I have two sealed but empty cartons with a slot on the top (like ballot boxes) and have marked it [I] and [F]. As time passes by and as I get new “revelations” I jot them on a note and drop in the right box. I plan to go back to these boxes, collect all the bits and pieces and see if ideas change over time or get outdated because of the Russians (in lighter vein).

I think we should close out this topic at least for the moment.

Thursday, 10 March 2016


Rolls  Royce Phanton I 1928
         Mr. Allen Swift:  Born - 1908 - Died 2010 (or 2005?)

This man owned  & drove the same car for 82 YEARS. (or 77years)
         Can you imagine  even having the same car for 82 years?
         Mr. Allen Swift  ( Springfield , Massachusetts ) received this 1928
    Rolls-Royce  Piccadilly-P1 Roadster from his father, brand new -
    as a graduation  gift in 1928.
         He drove it up  until his death last year ... At the age of  102!!!
         He was the  oldest living owner of a car that was purchased  new.
         Just thought  you'd like to see it.
         It was donated  to a Springfield museum after his death.
         It has 1,070,000  miles on it, still runs like a Swiss watch, dead silent
    at any speed and  is in perfect cosmetic condition.
         82 years -  That's approximately 13,048 miles per year (1087 per  month)...
1,070,000 that's  miles not kilometres!!

That's British  engineering of a bygone era.
       I don't think  they make them like this anymore  .

There are a few inaccuracies in the report given above and some additional information is available.
The man in the photo is Allan Swift of West Hartford, CT and the car he posed with was his 1928 Rolls Royce Phantom I, which he bought new and drove for close to 77 years.  Swift died at the age of 102 in October of 2005. In the 1920’s the British based Roll Royce company had a plant in Springfield, MA where 2,944 vehicles were produced. In 1994 Swift was presented a crystal Spirit of Ecstasy award by Rolls-Royce Motors for holding the record of the longest ownership of one of their automobiles.
Further details are given here:


Comments on Rolls Royce:

Rolls Royce cars biggest strength was that they were very rugged.  So much so that, once some one who purchased  RR Car never came back to buy another one.
His car continued to serve him in a trouble free manner.
So much so that the RR Company's one of the reasons of failure was, its trouble free service.
Rolls Royce are model cars even today. I remember we had 2 such vintage cars in the BHU Engg College Auto Shop and the i/charge would take us for a ride one day, stop it at the start point of an up slope, put in 3rd gear and show us the  upclimb smoothly. Also he would emphasise that you open the engine bonnet, hit any where with a small hammer n nothing will happen. When I visited my College 3yrs back I specifically asked to see these cars, still there, though not running now. Thanks
FYI the RR cars you are mentioning at BHU are Silver Ghost and Silver Shadow.
Incidentally, I graduated from the same university.  They also had a very old truck, of the era, when even the differential gears were not implemented in the trucks.
BHU also had a full scale, 12 cylinder air cooled radial engine to power the propellers of the fighter planes of WW II.
Truly a great place of learning, for me.
Yes, you well remember their models. Excited to hear it Mr Dayal. May be professional Siamese Twins of an earlier birth, same college, same job, same post-retirement pursuits.
In fact Rolls and Royce were the two persons.
One had put in his money and the other one had put in his technical expertise.
........... and Some sideline talk in a lighter vein:

In a lighter vein, I hope he did not change wives either

No jokes about the ... wives around International Women's day.
Take care ...
care taken
words withdrawn
i can't say, in the words of our leaders.. i was mis quoted
i can only say
i was mis-written!
In lighter veins:
Today,being a thursday, the philosophical attitude takes over.
  I was just wondering "what comprises fun or a joke" Are we trying to entertain others or sometime obliquely putting a jibe in its garb, mostly the former I guess, but like a ghost and inspite of ourselves, sometimes our alter ego beats our conscious mind. I realized as to why characters like Johnny Walker, Mehmood, Mr Beans, Charlie Chaplin, Sardarjis and many others became so popular and successful in life just by being funny. The common factor being they made fun of them selves and made every one happy n no hurting. May be useful to avoid misuse of "in lighter vein".

Well given   and   Well taken !
Nothing escapes your eagle eyes. I bow for your indulgence.
Wish I could do that (drive )with my Maruti 800 of 1985 which is as good as new. Alas registration renewal!


Wednesday, 2 March 2016

Interesting figures of speech: Paraprosdokians and Aphorisms

I am not a linguist and not at all good in use of classical English language. I may not be able to differentiate between what is called 'Paraprosdokians' and 'Aphorisms', but both are very interesting figures of seech to read. So as a sequel to the smart answers, I am continuing with these amusing as well as thought provoking sentences.
So read these sentences and enjoy.
*Some more witty sentences have been contributed by Mr.Mohan Rao as 'Phyllis Dillerisms...' They are added at the end.

Paradox, Axioms, Rules ... Laws contributed by Shri S. Dayal are also added at the end.

Contributed by Mr.Mohan Rao :
 First time I heard about paraprosdokians, I liked them.
        Paraprosdokians are figures of speech in which the latter part of a sentence or phrase is surprising or unexpected and is frequently humorous. (Winston Churchill loved them).

        1. Where there's a will, I want to be in it.

        2. The last thing I want to do is hurt you ..but it's still on my list.

        3. Since light travels faster than sound, some people appear
        bright until you hear them speak.

        4. If I agreed with you, we'd both be wrong.

        5. We never really grow up -- we only learn how to act in public.

        6. War does not determine who is right, only who is left.

        7. Knowledge is knowing a tomato is a fruit. Wisdom is not putting it in a fruit salad.

        8. To steal ideas from one person is plagiarism. To steal from many is research.

        9. I didn't say it was your fault, I said I was blaming you.

        10. In filling out an application, where it says, "In case of emergency, notify..." I answered "a doctor."

        11. Women will never be equal to men until they can walk down
        the street with a bald head and a beer gut, and still think they are sexy.

        12. You do not need a parachute to skydive. You only need a parachute to skydive twice.

        13. I used to be indecisive, but now I'm not so sure.

        14. To be sure of hitting the target, shoot first and call whatever you hit the target.

        15. Going to church doesn't make you a Christian, any more than standing in a garage makes you a car.

        16. You're never too old to learn something stupid.

        17. I'm supposed to respect my elders, but it's getting harder and harder for me to find one now.
A paraprosdokian (/pærəprɒsˈdoʊkiən/) is a figure of speech in which the latter part of a sentence, phrase, or larger discourse is surprising or unexpected in a way that causes the reader or listener to reframe or reinterpret the first part. It is frequently used for humorous or dramatic effect, sometimes producing an anticlimax. For this reason, it is extremely popular among comedians and satirists. Some paraprosdokians not only change the meaning of an early phrase, but they also play on the double meaning of a particular word, creating a form of syllepsis.
"He was at his best when the going was good." —Alistair Cooke on the Duke of Windsor
"There but for the grace of God—goes God." —Winston Churchill
"If I could just say a few words… I'd be a better public speaker." —Homer Simpson
"If I am reading this graph correctly—I'd be very surprised." —Stephen Colbert
"On his feet he wore…blisters." —Aristotle
"I've had a perfectly wonderful evening, but this wasn't it." —Groucho Marx
"A modest man, who has much to be modest about." —supposedly Winston Churchill, about Clement Attlee
"I like going to the park and watching the children run around because they don't know I'm using blanks." —Emo Philips
"I haven't slept for ten days, because that would be too long." —Mitch Hedberg
"I sleep eight hours a day and at least ten at night." —Bill Hicks
"I don't belong to an organized political party. I'm a Democrat." —Will Rogers
"On the other hand, you have different fingers." —Steven Wright

Some comments and more examples are:
'We need not be frightened by the high sounding name of this  fairly familiar style of Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde"

A quote from the cover page of a "Book Of Quotations"
Do not quote, tell me what YOU know !

"All that I know is that I know nothing – Socrates"

"Peter de Vries is also well known for such formulations:
e.g. Deep down he is shallow."

Everybody wants to park his car in shade, but nobody wants to plant trees.
Similar examples are:
Everybody wants Electric Power, but nobody wants a Power Station near his place.
Everybody wants Canal water, but nobody wants to give land for building dams.
They also have valid reasons why this happens. The basic reason is selfishness.

In other words every body wants to go to heaven, but nobody wants to die ?




1. The nicest thing about the future is... that it always starts tomorrow.
2. Money will buy a fine dog... but only kindness will make him wag his tail.
3. If you don't have a sense of humour... you probably don't have any sense at all.
4. Seat belts are not as confining... as wheelchairs.
5. A good time to keep your mouth shut is... when you're in deep water.
6. How come it takes so little time for a child who is afraid of the dark . .
to become a teenager who wants to stay out all night?
7. Business conventions are important... because they demonstrate how many people a company can operate without.
8. Why is it that at class reunions... you feel younger than everyone else looks?
9. Scratch a cat (or dog)... and you will have a permanent job.
10. No one has more driving ambition than the teenage boy (or girl)...who wants to buy a car.
11. There are no new sins... the old ones just get more publicity.
12. There are worse things than getting a call for a wrong number at 4 a.m... like, it could be the right number.
13. No one ever says "It's only a game"... when their team is winning.
14. I've reached the age where... 'happy hour' is a nap.
15. Be careful about reading the fine print...there's no way you're going to like it.
16. The trouble with bucket seats is that... not everybody has the same size bucket.
17. Do you realize that, in about 40 years... we'll have thousands of old ladies running around with tattoos?
18. Money can't buy happiness... but somehow it's more comfortable to cry in a Cadillac than in a Na no
19. After 60, if you don't wake up aching in every joint... you're probably dead.
20. Always be yourself because the people that matter don't mind... and the ones that mind don't matter.
21. Life isn't tied with a bow... but it's still a gift.REMEMBER...
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός aphorismos, "delimitation") is a terse saying, expressing a general truth, principle, or astute observation, and spoken or written in a laconic and memorable form.Aphorism literally means a "distinction" or "definition". The term was first used in the Aphorisms of Hippocrates. The oft-cited first sentence of this work (see Ars longa, vita brevis) is:
Life is short, art long, opportunity fleeting, experience deceptive, judgement difficult.
The term was later applied to maxims of physical science, then statements of all kinds of philosophical, moral, or literary principles.
In modern usage an aphorism is generally understood to be a concise statement containing a subjective truth or observation, cleverly and pithily written.
A well-known example is
Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
— Lord Acton
 Courtsey.. Wikipedia

Phyllis Dillerisms... 

Whatever you may look like, marry a man your own age.
As your beauty fades, so will his eyesight.

Cleaning your house while your kids are still growing up is like shoveling the sidewalk before it stops snowing?

Housework can't kill you, but why take a chance?

The reason women don't play football is because 11 of them would never wear the same outfit in public.

Best way to get rid of kitchen odors:  Eat out.

A bachelor is a guy who never made the same mistake once.

I want my children to have all the things I couldn't afford.
Then I want to move in with them.

Most children threaten at times to run away from home.  This is the only thing that keeps some parents going.

Any time three New Yorkers get into a cab without an argument, a bank has just been robbed.

We spend the first twelve months of our children's lives teaching them to walk and talk and the next twelve years telling them to sit down and shut up.

Burt Reynolds once asked me out. I was in his room.

What I don't like about office Christmas parties is looking for a job the next day.

The only time I ever enjoyed ironing was the day I accidentally got gin in the steam iron.

His finest hour lasted a minute and a half.

Old age is when the liver spots show through your gloves.

My photographs don't do me justice -they just look like me.

I admit I have a tremendous sex drive.  My boyfriend lives forty miles away.

Tranquilizers work only if you follow the advice on the bottle - keep away from children.

I asked the waiter, 'Is this milk fresh?' He said, 'Lady, three hours ago it was grass.'

The reason the golf pro tells you to keep your head down is so you can't see him laughing.

You know you're old if they have discontinued your blood type.


S Dayal: Paradox, Axioms, Rules ... Laws

Kauffman's Paradox of the Corporation:_
The less important you are to the corporation, the more your absence is noticed.

The Salary Axiom:_
The pay raise is just large enough to increase your taxes and just small enough to have no effect on your take-home pay.

Murphy's First Law for Wives_:
If you ask your husband to pick up five items at the store and then you add one more as an afterthought, he will forget two of the first five.

Miller's Law of Insurance:_
Insurance covers everything except what happens.

First Law of Living_:
As soon as you start doing what you always wanted to be doing, you'll want to be doing something else.

Weiner's Law of Libraries:_
There are no answers, only cross-references.

Isaac's Strange Rule of Staleness_:
Any food that starts out hard will soften when stale. Any food that starts out soft will harden when stale.

The Grocery Bag Law:_
The candy bar you planned to eat on the way home from the market is always hidden at the bottom of the grocery bag.

And Here goes the last one !!

Lampner's Law of Employment:_
When leaving work late, you will go unnoticed. When you leave work early, you will meet the boss in the parking lot !
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